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· SVGA (800x600) video card, driver, and monitor

· Microsoft Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP or Vista

· Internet connection (minimum 56Kbps recommended)

· Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0 or greater (free download below)

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If you do not meet the software requirements from above, please download the latest version by clicking on the links below.

There are 3 major components to the Power Industry Course Collection. They are Power Distribution,** **Power Generation** , **and** **Power Transmission. This site covers the classes associated with **POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TRAINING**. This series will cover various aspects of distribution system technology. Topics include distribution networks and equipment, system protection, control and automation, equipment testing and maintenance, and the distribution system operator's role. It is presented on the technical level and a knowledge of basic electrical theory is assumed.

These courses cover Electrical Fundamentals For Distribution Systems,distribution networks,distribution system equipment,AC voltage generation,line protection,fault calculations,relay settings,testing equipment,voltage control,impedance and voltage drop.

CLUSTER A: REVIEW OF ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

8001 - AC Voltage Generation

8002 - Power Factor

8003 - Impedance and Voltage Drop

8004 - Three Phase Power Systems

CLUSTER B: DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

8005 - Distribution Networks System Layout 2

8006 - Distribution Networks Overhead Lines

8007 - Underground Distribution Systems

8008 - Substations

8009 - Distributed Generation

CLUSTER C:DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EQUIPMENT

8010 - Substation Transformers

8011 - Distribution Transformers

8012 - Fault Interrupting Devices

8013 - Non Fault Interrupting Devices

8014 - Voltage Control Devices

8001 - **AC Voltage Generation **

This module, the first in the "Distribution System Training" series, initiates the review of electrical fundamentals that provide the basis for detailed study of equipment and systems in subsequent modules. The objective of this module is to develop an understanding of AC power generation, frequency and characteristics of the sine wave. The effect of pure resistance in an AC circuit is also discussed, including the relationship between voltage, resistance, power and energy. On completion of this module and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them in day-to-day practice.

• Requirements for power balance, i.e. power supply must equal power demand (including losses)

• Current and power flow through a simple DC circuit

• Calculation of equivalent resistance for parallel circuits

• Calculation of line voltage drop and line power loss

• The use of high voltages to reduce transmission and distribution line losses

• The relationship between power and energy

• The principle of AC power generation using a rotating magnetic field

• Development of the voltage sine wave in relation to the rotor angle

• Physical interpretation of the current sine wave, i.e. current flow changes direction every half cycle

• Relationship between frequency, number of poles and speed of rotation

• Synchronous operation of generators connected in parallel

• The effects of pure resistance in an AC circuit

• Calculation of instantaneous values, and the resultant power curve

• The meaning of RMS values

The objective of this module is to present the broad categories of line configuration and discuss the various types of protection schemes that are employed. Particular attention is paid to coordination for selective tripping and isolation of faulty circuits.

After study of this tape and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

• Classification of lines and feeders

• Typical system configurations

• Faults on radial and loop systems

• Reclosing arrangements

• Breaker failure protection

• Application of overcurrent relays

• Setting of relay pickup and time dial

• Coordination with downstream fuses and reclosers

• Coordination procedure for loop systems

• Maximum and minimum fault levels

• Application of instantaneous overcurrent relays

• Voltage control (restraint) overcurrent relays

• Ground fault protection with directional overcurrent relays

• Polarizing sources; current; voltage

• Polarizing by negative sequence voltage

• Effects of mutual induction

• Limitations of overcurrent relays

• Characteristics of distance relays

• RX diagram

• Protection zones; primary and backup

• Multiple lines and power sources

• Tapped lines; multi-terminal lines

• Ground fault protection by distance relays

• Backup protection

The objective of this module is to present the concepts on which fault calculations are made. Both balanced and non-balanced faults are discussed, including phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground faults. The use of "percent impedance" is shown and the use of symmetrical components is discussed.

After completion of this videotape and associated workbook, participants will understand the following concepts and be able to apply them to their day-to-day activities. They will also be able to answer related questions on these subjects.

• Fault characteristics (introduced in module SPT 4)

• Phasor diagrams (introduced in module SPT 3)

• Classification of faults

• Characteristics of the 3-phase balanced fault

• Impedance between source and fault

• Calculation of fault current (single phase)

• Per unit (percent) impedance, base MVA

• Conversion of per unit values to a different base MVA

• Calculation of fault MVA at different locations

• Calculation of fault current

• Conversion between OHMIC and PERCENT impedance

• Vectorial addition of impedances; the "j" operator

• Equivalent (substitute) circuits to aid analysis

• Symmetrical components; positive, negative and zero sequence quantities

• System phase rotation

• Characteristics of positive, negative and zero sequence components

• Phase-to-phase faults; study of sequence components

• Addition of sequence components to find fault current

• Single line-to-ground faults, study of sequence components

• Magnitude of sequence components

• Vectorial addition of sequence components; operator "a"

• Positive, negative and zero sequence impedances

• Examples of fault calculations using sequence impedances

• Relay settings, significance of relay location

• CT ratio, VT ratio

• Measuring zero sequence current

The objective of this module is to draw attention to the many factors that affect the accuracy of testing on protection circuits and equipment. Fundamental testing techniques are presented along with a discussion of the pitfalls to be avoided. A demonstration on the use of the oscilloscope is included. The need for specific safety precautions is also discussed.

On completion of this video and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them to day-to-day work activities:

• Types of electrical measurements

• Influence of instrument accuracy

• Effect of waveform (i.e. harmonics) on accuracy

• Effect of source impedance

• Effect of magnetic fields on digital instruments

• Current measurement, current probes

• Resistance measurement, ohmmeters

• Measuring DC resistance of inductive circuit

• Frequency measurement, counters, spectrum analyzer

• Selective voltmeter to measure signal strength

• Definition of frequency bandwidth

• Measuring dB signal strength

• dB logarithmic scale versus linear voltage scale

• The dB meter, "Terminated" or "Bridged" selection

• Operation of timers

• Phase angle measurement

• The oscilloscope operating principles

• Set-up and adjusting the scope

• Practical applications using the scope

• Precautions when using scope on ungrounded circuits

• Storage oscilloscopes

• Types of test set, traditional (analog) and advanced (digital)

• "Load box" (resistance), "Phantom load" (inductance)

• Three phase test set

• Out of phase sources; phase shifting transformer

• Solid state test set

• Need for safety when performing tests

• Clearance procedures

• Switchyard safety, isolation and grounding

• Potential hazards

Review of Fundamentals The objective of this course, the first in the series on transmission system operation, is to review relevant fundamentals of electricity to provide a firm foundation on which to build an understanding of the more advanced concepts which will be presented as the program progresses. On completion of this course, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day operation:

• To provide unbiased control of system operation

• The establishment of Independent System Operators (ISOs) or other similar entities

• The tasks of the system operations group; controlling the transmission system

• Frequency control of the power system through matching of power production and consumer demand plus losses

• Load impedance and its effect on current flow through transmission lines

• The effect of conductor resistance in a transmission line, i.e. voltage drop and energy loss due to heat dissipation

• The effect of line voltage on system energy losses

• The difference between power and energy, i.e. watts versus watt-hours

• Typical power generator prime movers

• Fundamentals of electric power generation

• The sine wave and RMS values

• Factors that determine frequency of generation

• The effect of pure resistance in an AC circuit as shown by sine waves and vector diagrams

• The effect of pure inductive reactance and capacitive reactance in an AC circuit

• Power generated in resistive, inductive, and capacitive circuits

• The flow of reactive power, positive and/or negative vars

• The power triangle and power factor

• Combined R, XL, and Xc circuits

• The impedance triangle and voltage triangle

• Power factor correction

• The effect of transmission line inductance on voltage drop

• The development of a power angle across a transmission line due to line inductance

• Three phase power generation

• The application of a common neutral conductor

• A balanced three phase load with no neutral conductor

• Voltage and current characteristics of the Wye and delta connections

• The calculation of three-phase power

• Current and voltage relationships between primary and secondary of a Delta/Wye connected transformer

The main objective of this course, the second in the series on transmission system operation, is to draw attention to the major features of transmission system equipment, and operation of transmission lines. Particular attention is paid to limitations resulting from the effects of resistance, inductance, and capacitance of the lines. After completion of this cousre, the participant should understand the following concepts, and be able to apply them in day-to-day work activities.

• Typical operating voltages for transmission lines and distribution lines

• Different types of transmission towers

• Conductor material and conductor layout on the towers

• Insulators and the importance of conductor spacing

• Features and limitations of transmission cables

• The application of high voltage DC transmission

• The effect of transmission line conductor resistance and inductance

• Line voltage drop and power angle as shown by vectors

• The effect of line loading on voltage drop and power angle

• The effect of load power factor on voltage drop and power angle

• The need to generate and provide megavars and megawatts to meet line losses

• Charging current required due to the line shunt capacitance

• Voltage rise due to line capacitance on an open-ended line, shown by vectors

• Production of reactive power by line shunt capacitance

• Line reactive compensation equipment, including: reactors, capacitors, synchronous condensers, and static VAR compensators

• The function of transmission stations, and station equipment

• Features of different bus arrangements

• Types of circuit breaker

• The principle of transformer operation

• Transformer physical construction

• Transformer cooling arrangements

• Autotransformers

• Instrument transformers

This third course in the Transmission System Operation training program develops the principles of voltage control on the transmission network. The material builds upon discussions of power flow fundamentals and transmission line characteristics from the two previous courses. We begin by describing the system’s need for reactive power (VARs) and how VARs are generated and/or absorbed by the various components of the power system. Next it is demonstrated that the flow of VARs has a profound effect on voltage level (much more so than the flow of Watts). Transmission line MW loading and its effect on VAR requirements and voltage are also examined, as well as the effect of contingencies. Various real-life scenarios are described in which power systems have collapsed from significant off-nominal voltage. Finally, this course discusses a wide array of equipment and methods system operators can use to effectively control transmission voltages to comply with industry standards. At the completion of this course, you should be able to:

• Name the two distinct types of power produced at the generators when load is connected

• Explain the basic difference in function between Watts and VARs, and why both types of power are necessary to make electrical equipment work

• Sketch and compare curves for power in a purely inductive circuit and power in a purely capacitive circuit

• Recognize the difference between positive VARs and negative VARs

• Name 3 power system components that create a demand for VARs

• Name 3 power system components that supply VARs to the system

• Describe what it means for some components to "compensate" for others

• Explain how MW and MVARs are produced in an electric generator

• Recognize that a change in generator voltage or MVAR supply must come from a change in the unit’s DC excitation current

• Discuss the function of an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)

• Predict the response of the AVR to an increase or decrease in MVAR demand on the system

• Recognize that it takes a difference in voltage magnitude to drive MVARs through the system, and that the direction of MVAR flow is from high to low voltage

• Discuss the function of a synchronous condenser and a static VAR compensator

• Explain why a transmission line can be either a MVAR source or a MVAR load

• Describe the effect of MVAR flow on voltage drop. Compare to the voltage drop resulting from the flow of MW

• Name 3 events that can have a profound effect on MVAR flows and voltage level

• Explain what happens to the MVARs required by a transmission line as MW loading is increased

• State the significance of a line’s surge impedance loading (SIL)

• Understand why it is important to have adequate MVAR sources located at intermediate points in the network, especially during contingencies

• Sketch the voltage profile along a transmission line operating above SIL, with voltage at both ends fixed at 100%. Compare with the voltage profile below and at SIL

• Explain why MVAR supply from a line’s capacitance drops off sharply at loadings above SIL

• Name some typical loading levels for transmission lines in percent of SIL

• Sketch a typical transfer limit curve (P vs. V) and explain the significance of the knee of the curve

• Explain why line loadings must be restricted to well below the knee of the transfer limit curve

• State the industry (NERC) limit for percent voltage change following any single contingency

• Give examples of system conditions and events that may lead to voltage collapse.

• Explain why it is important for system operators to prepare in advance for voltage emergencies

• Describe how operators can adjust voltage/MVAR supply at the generating units

• Understand why AVR set points must be raised/lowered in unison to effect a net change in voltage/MVAR supply

• Sketch a typical generator capability curve and discuss the MW and lagging/leading MVAR limitations

• Describe the function and operation of Maximum and Minimum Excitation Limiters on generating units

• List some power system components that allow operators to adjust voltage/MVAR supply at locations other than generating plants

• Discuss the reactive overload capability of generators, synchronous condensers, and static VAR compensators

• Describe some typical applications for shunt reactor and capacitor banks on the transmission system

• Explain how a series capacitor can be of assistance in voltage control

• Understand the function and operation of Load Tap Changing Transformers (LTCs) in providing voltage correction on the transmission and distribution systems

• Discuss the importance of operator actions in implementing voltage control: curtailing economy transfers, bringing on local generation, bringing on reactive sources ahead of the morning load rise, removing lines during light load, etc

The fourth course in the Transmission System Operation training program shows how frequency and tie-line flows between control areas are controlled. We begin by developing the concepts of an AC interconnection and synchronizing forces. Frequency deviations come about when unbalances develop between generation and load and these deviations are controlled by the combined action of speed governors and Automatic Generation Control (AGC) aided by the natural change in load as frequency changes. We describe how tie-line flows also change when generation to load imbalances occur. Finally, this course discusses Area Control Error (ACE), the fundamental input to AGC, and how it provides the intelligence required to restore generation to load unbalances. At the completion of this course, the student should be able to:

• Know what constitutes an AC interconnection

• Identify the interconnection within which your facilities are located

• Know at what frequency your interconnection operates

• Explain why frequency is the same throughout an AC interconnection

• Explain the role of transmission lines in maintaining synchronism

• Know what causes frequency to deviate from nominal

• Tell whether generation or load is changed to control frequency

• Know what a speed governor is and what it does

• Tell how the size of an interconnection affects frequency deviations

• Know what limits are imposed on frequency excursions and why

• Know why it is important to control tie-line flow

• Know why the type of generating unit affects its speed of response to frequency changes

• Explain the relationship between generation rotational speed and frequency

• Understand that speed governors act as proportional controls

• Describe what is meant by governor droop

• Describe the units used for droop

• Know that governors work to control both decreasing and increasing frequency

• Understand why governor droop permits load sharing between generating units

• Tell what are typical droop settings for various types of generating units

• Understand why many classes of generating units do not participate in frequency control

• Be able to describe the basic characteristics of the example system used

• Total capacity, capacity under governor control and total load

• Composite droop characteristic

• Tell what happens to frequency under governor control only when an 800 MW unit trips off

• Describe what is meant by the Load Effect

• Describe what is meant by the Frequency Response Characteristic, Beta

• Tell what happens to frequency under the influence of Beta when an 800 MW unit trips off

• Be able to calculate how much generation is picked up and how much load is lost for a given drop in frequency

• Understand why frequency does not drop instantly when a generation/load mismatch occurs

• Be able to identify points A, B and C on a frequency chart taken while a generating unit tripped off line

• Be able to compute the net tie-line flow following loss of generation within a control area

• Understand how AGC assists system operators

• Know how frequently AGC application software is run, typically

• Be able to describe Area Control Error and how it is calculated

• Know what is the Frequency Bias Coefficient, B, and how it relates to Beta

• Be able to compute ACE given frequency deviation, net tie deviation and B

• Know how to find the frequency stabilization point

• Describe functions that AGC can perform other than responding to generation loss

• Know why AGC is suspended when large frequency deviations occur

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This module, the first in the "Distribution System Training" series, initiates the review of electrical fundamentals that provide the basis for detailed study of equipment and systems in subsequent modules. The objective of this module is to develop an understanding of AC power generation, frequency and characteristics of the sine wave. The effect of pure resistance in an AC circuit is also discussed, including the relationship between voltage, resistance, power and energy. On completion of this module and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them in day-to-day practice.

• Requirements for power balance, i.e. power supply must equal power demand (including losses)

• Current and power flow through a simple DC circuit

• Calculation of equivalent resistance for parallel circuits

• Calculation of line voltage drop and line power loss

• The use of high voltages to reduce transmission and distribution line losses

• The relationship between power and energy

• The principle of AC power generation using a rotating magnetic field

• Development of the voltage sine wave in relation to the rotor angle

• Physical interpretation of the current sine wave, i.e. current flow changes direction every half cycle

• Relationship between frequency, number of poles and speed of rotation

• Synchronous operation of generators connected in parallel

• The effects of pure resistance in an AC circuit

• Calculation of instantaneous values, and the resultant power curve

• The meaning of RMS values

Continuing our review of electrical fundamentals, the objective of this module is to demonstrate the effect of inductance, and capacitance in AC circuits, leading to a discussion of power factor and its significance. After completion of this video and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand and apply the following concepts in day-to-day work activities:

• The significance of inductance and inductive reactance in an AC circuit

• Phase angle between current and voltage

• Vector representation of electrical properties

• Power in an inductive circuit

• Reactive power - VARs (Volt-Amperes Reactive)

• Reactive power demand in an inductive circuit (positive VARs)

• The significance of pure capacitance in an AC circuit

• Production of VARs by a capacitive element

• The power triangle - active power, reactive power, and apparent power

• Vector relationship between MW, MVARs, and MVA

• Definition of power factor

• Significance of low power factor on generator output (i.e. reduced MW capacity)

• Load power factor correction by capacitors

The objective of this module is to look at complex circuits; that is those with capacitive, inductive and resistive elements connected in series. The impedance triangle, voltage triangle, and power triangle are all developed. Also discussed is the effect of impedance in causing voltage drop and phase angle difference in transmission and distribution lines. A brief review of basic trigonometry is included for those who feel that a refresher would be worthwhile. After completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand and apply the following concepts in day-to-day operation.

• The resolution of right angle triangles using basic trigonometry and the Pythagorean theorem

• The calculation of overall impedance in a complex circuit, consisting of resistance, inductance, and capacitance in series

• Construction of the impedance triangle

• Calculation of voltage drop across each element of the circuit

• Construction of the voltage triangle

• Calculation of active power, or reactive power, drawn by each element of the circuit

• Construction of the power triangle

• The effect of series resonance in a circuit

• The effect of parallel resonance in a circuit

• The effect of frequency on resonance

• Vector representation of voltage drop in transmission lines and distribution lines

• The effect of load power factor on line voltage drop

POWER DISTRIBUTION ONLINE COURSES for ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS