The Federal Reserve Boards Chairman Ben S. Bernanke recently gave a speech on Embracing the Challenge of Free Trade: Competing and Prospering in a Global Economy. Bernanke remarked that "investing in education and training would help young people entering the labor force as well as those already in mid-career to better manage the ever-changing demands of the workforce". The Chairman stated that workforce skills can be improved not only through K-12 education, college, and graduate work but also through: on-the-job training, coursework at community colleges and vocational schools, extension courses and online training. Bernanke added "an eclectic, market-responsive approach to increasing workforce skills is the most likely to be successful." Online training and content may be the answer; custom tailored courses can ensure workers are presented with the most up to date information in a convenient format.


What is the cost of the course and what methods of payment are accepted?
The cost of each course is located in the course catalog. You may pay using all major credit cards (Visa ®, MasterCard ®, Discover ® or American Express ®) or electronic check payment (Telecheck ®).

Is it secure to send my credit card information over the Internet?
Yes, all 360training web sites incorporate HTTPS technology making them safe and secure to process monetary transactions. HTTPS is the Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol with SSL Encryption. It is the most popular network protocol for establishing secure connections for exchanging documents on the World Wide Web. You may pay using all major credit cards (Visa ®, MasterCard ®, Discover ® or American Express ®) or electronic check payment (Telecheck ®).

What happens if I get disconnected from the Internet?
If you get disconnected from the Internet, then you will need to log back into your account. If this happens, then you will be returned to the beginning of the lesson that you were working on when you were disconnected.

Can I take the course from various locations and computers?
The courses are available to you from any computer that has access to the Internet.

Can I take this course with the AOL ® browser?
You can take the course with any browser of your choice, although 360training does not support the AOL ®, Mozilla ®, Firefox ® and Netscape ® Browser. This means our technical support team is not able to help you in the event of a problem while taking a course with the any of these browsers. We do suggest that you use Microsoft Internet Explorer browser (version 6.0 or latest), while signed on with AOL ®. To do this, log in to AOL ® and minimize the program. While still connected to the Internet, click on the START button in the lower left-hand corner of your screen. Click PROGRAMS, and then click INTERNET EXPLORER ®. The program icon will have a blue colored "e" shaped icon.

Do I need to use a PC? What if I have a Macintosh?
If you have a MAC ®, then you can still sign on to take any of our classes. Many of our customers have taken their courses on MACs ® and had no problems whatsoever. However, be aware that our technical support team may be unable to assist you, should you encounter technical difficulties. They do not have MACs ® and, therefore, may be unable to replicate any problem you may encounter. If you have a MAC ®, then you will need the latest version of Internet Explorer ®, as well as the latest version of the Macromedia Flash Player ®.

Do I need to have sound on my computer to take these classes?
While sound is another feature of our courses, it is not necessary for a customer to have sound in order to learn the course material or complete the course. All information played in audio is also displayed in text by the course player.

How do I get a username or password? What do I use it for? What should I do if I forget it?
The username and password is selected by the student. It should be unique and something that you can easily remember. We suggest using your e-mail address. You will use the same username and password each time you attempt to log in to the virtual university page to access your course. This information is entered in the returning students section on the homepage of the virtual university. If you forget your password, then you can call 800-442-1149 (press 1 for customer service) to request it.

Most of these courses cover Substations, protection relays and voltage control,Power factor correction by synchronous motor, Power factor correction by capacitors, Functions of the capacitor in raising voltage, Potential high voltage hazard of permanently connected capacitors , Switched capacitors.

Sample Courses:
8008 -Substations  
The objective of this module is to examine the major functions of distribution substations, including different arrangements of substation layout. Typical bus configurations are presented along with a look at the equipment usually installed in substations. After completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day work practice.

• The role of the substation, i.e. link between the high voltage system and distribution customers
• Operating activities performed in the substation
• Substation bus arrangements; high voltage and low voltage
• Single feed and dual feed substations
• Dual transformer substations
• The use of mobile transformers
• Metal clad switchgear arrangements
• Substation local and remote operation
• Switching devices used in the substation
• Features of the circuit breaker
• Types of quenching medium used in circuit breakers
• Switching procedures
• Location of protection relays in substations
• Characteristics of the basic disconnect switch (non-load break)
• The application of disconnect switches in clearance procedures
• The interruption of line charging current and transformer excitation current
• Discharging static voltage to ground, and applying temporary grounds
• Application of the fused disconnect combination
• Substation equipment
• Station service supply to the substation
• Applications of auxiliary power
• DC supply and applications
• The station battery
• Uninterruptible power supplies
• The application of instrument transformers; i.e. CTs (current transformers) and PTs (potential transformers)
• Handling monitoring data
• Communicating monitored data to the system control center via the SCADA system
• Voltage control equipment; i.e. automatic tap changers and capacitor banks
• The substation-grounding mat
• Grounding of metallic equipment, enclosures, and structures
• Connection of other system grounds; i.e. the neutral point of Wye connected transformers
• Unattended substations

8009 -Distributed Generation  
The objective of this module is to examine reasons why generating plant is increasingly being connected to the distribution system. Different types of customer owned co-generation plants, and independent power producers are presented and attention is drawn to problems of dispatching and control of this distributed generation. On completion of this video and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day work practice.

• Distributed generation (also known as dispersed generation) may be owned by different entities such as:
1. Customers self-generation plants
2. Independent power producers
3. The distribution company itself
• Modes of self generation:
1. Stand-by power
2. In-house generation to meet in-house demand
3. Excess generation for sale back to the distribution company
• The price factor, i.e. self-generation versus purchased power
• The economy of co-generation plants
• Justification for the utility’s stand-by charge
• The purpose of the IPP
• Advantages to the distribution company of self-owned generating plant connected to the distribution system
• Features of different types of generation, i.e. small hydro generators, reciprocating engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, combined cycle
• Features of new evolving generation technologies
• Limitations of generation from new technologies
• Limitations of generation from co-gen sources
• Co-ordination between system protection and distributed generator protection

8014 -Voltage Control Devices 
The objective of this module is to look at the different methods and equipment that are employed to adjust voltage throughout the distribution system. After completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day work practice.

• Voltage standards: - allowable variation at the customer’s service entrance
• Factors affecting voltage drop along distribution feeders
• The effect of raising voltage at the substation bus
• Transformer tap changing mechanism
• Automatic tap changing control circuit
• Action of tap changing contacts to maintain load current flow
• The application of tap changer vacuum break contacts
• Auto tap changer voltage sensing point
• Line drop compensation
• Limitations of voltage control at the substation bus only
• Application of the in-line voltage regulator
• Principal of operation of the in-line step voltage regulator (SVR)
• Pole top installation of SVR- connections
• Operation of the SVR by-pass
• Voltage profile improvement by boosting voltage at feeder mid-point
• The effect of load power factor on line voltage drop
• Power factor correction by synchronous motor
• Power factor correction by capacitors
• Functions of the capacitor in raising voltage
• Potential high voltage hazard of permanently connected capacitors
• Switched capacitors; control parameters 

8015 - Fundamentals of Protection
The objective of this module is to present the fundamental requirements and features of distribution system protection, so as to provide a firm foundation for more detailed study of specific protection schemes and equipment which follows in succeeding modules. On completion of this module and associated workbook, the participant will be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day work activities.

• The need for protection equipment on all sectors of the power system
• Definition of a "hazardous" condition
• Equipment overload condition versus "fault condition"
• The requirement to detect, evaluate and clear a fault
• Typical causes of faults; (i.e. equipment failure, physical accidents, natural events (usually weather related))
• Classification of faults
• Consequences of a fault
• Calculation of fault current magnitude
• Calculation of voltage at different locations under fault conditions
• The significance of power source impedance on fault current magnitude and terminal voltage
• The significance of distance to the fault on a radial circuit
• Means of disconnecting the faulty circuit by interrupting high magnitude fault current
• Applications and disadvantages of fuses
• Applications of the circuit breaker-protection relay combination
• Application and limitations of reclosers
• The need for coordination of relay settings to ensure correct tripping sequence when a faulty circuit is cleared
• Protection relay input and output signals
• Characteristics of voltage transformers and current transformers
• Function of the protection relay as a signal processor
• Typical circuit breaker tripping circuit, including relay trip contacts and manual trip contacts
• Relay annunciation
• Basic construction of electromechanical relay
• Basic construction of solid state (static) relays
• Basic construction of digital relays

8016 - Overcurrent Protection
The objective of this module is to examine the features of overcurrent protection, including different types of overcurrent relay and typical applications. After completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them in day-to-day work practice.

• Increase in current magnitude due to the occurrence of a fault
• Fuse operation due to overcurrent
• Thermal relay operation
• Detection of fault by overcurrent relay and subsequent trip of the circuit breaker to disconnect the faulty circuit
• Instantaneous overcurrent relays
• Limitations of the instantaneous overcurrent relay
• Construction of the electromechanical type time overcurrent relay
• Function of the time overcurrent relay
• The inverse time characteristic
• Application of overcurrent relays to protect radial distribution lines
• Three phase and ground fault protection by overcurrent relays
• Setting the overcurrent relay
• Downstream protection devices, including fuses and reclosers
• Coordination of overcurrent relays and downstream protection devices
• Voltage restraint overcurrent relays
• Directional overcurrent relays
• Polarizing the directional relay
• Features of static electronic relays
• Fundamentals of microprocessor relays
• The microprocessor type overcurrent relay
• Microprocessor relay adjustments
• Microprocessor relay multiple functions
• Self monitoring functions
• Microprocessor relay communication to substation control systems

8017 - Distribution System Protection - Differential Protection
The objective of this module is to demonstrate the principle of differential protection, and examine its application to protection of such equipment as generators, transformers, buses, and power lines.
On completion of this module, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in day-to-day operation.

• The differential principle as applied to simple bus protection
• Significance of CT (Current Transformer) ratios
• Circulation of CT secondary current, including flow through the differential relay operating coil
• Differential operation under external fault conditions
• Differential operation under internal fault conditions
• Generator differential protection
• Transformer differential protection
• The flow of error current due to tap changing and discrepancies in CT secondary equipment
• Misoperation during through fault conditions due to error current
• The function of restraint coils in counteracting misoperation
• Differential relay misoperation due to transformer inrush current
• The function of the harmonic restraint unit
• Line differential protection principle
• Circulating current pilot wire differential protection
• Opposed voltage pilot protection
• The effect of pilot wire damage (open circuit or short circuit)
• Monitoring the integrity of the pilot wire circuit
• Pilot wire induced voltage resulting from power line fault current flow
• The effect of induced voltage in the pilot wires
• Discharge of induced voltage through mutual drainage reactors
• Station ground-mat potential rise under power line ground fault conditions
• Affect of potential difference between the substation ground mat and the local grounding of drainage reactors and pilot cable shield
• The function of neutralizing transformers

2125 - Programmable Logic Controllers  
This video presents the main features and advantages of PLCs, including hardware arrangements, software (i.e. programming) and typical applications. Extension of the PLC is discussed, noting features of a typical distributed control system
On completion of this videotape and associated workbook, the participant should be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them to day-to-day work activities.

• Process logic & logic diagrams
• Hard-wired relay panels; control devices
• Advantages of PLCs
• Compact PLCs and rack mounted PLCs
• PLC elements
• Types of memory; RAM, ROM, EPROM
• Terminal connections; input-output image memory
• Input-output point address
• CPU operation, scanning time
• Nature of input and output signals; digital, analog
• Function of input and output interfaces
• Conditioning input and output signals
• Voltage sources for input and output signals
• Opto-isolators
• A/D and D/A conversion
• Output relays
• Transistor switching
• Protection against signal noise
• The external programming module
• Coding instructions
• Entering ladder logic
• Programming functions; timer, counter, latch
• Programming examples
• Troubleshooting with the programming module
• Extended PLC networks
• Interconnecting communication bus
• Distance limitations
• Input-output racks; local and remote
• Remote input-output blocks
• Distributed control system, SCADA
• Monitoring and programming the system

Most of these courses cover Substations, protection relays and voltage control,Power factor correction by synchronous motor, Power factor correction by capacitors, Functions of the capacitor in raising voltage, Potential high voltage hazard of permanently connected capacitors , Switched capacitors.

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Electric Utility Power distribution online training courses
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Online power distribution training courses on  Substations, protection relays, voltage control, distributed generation, voltage control devices, fundamentals of protection, overcurrent protection, differential protection & programmable logic controllers

Programmable logic controller
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(March 2009)

PLC & input/output arrangements. A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines, such as packaging and semiconductor machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.