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Still More Courses and Descriptions

Power distribution classes for distribution system equipment and system protection including static relaying,coordination of protection devices,Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems,Energy Centre Operations,Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices ,Supervisory Control System (SCADA) and Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention

CLUSTER C:DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
8010 - Substation Transformers
8011 - Distribution Transformers
8012 - Fault Interrupting Devices
8013 - Non Fault Interrupting Devices
8014 - Voltage Control Devices 

CLUSTER D:DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION
8015 - Fundamentals of Protection
8016 - Overcurrent Protection
8017 - Distribution System Protection 
8018 - Coordination of protection Devices 1
8019 - Overvoltage Protection 

CLUSTER E:DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL/AUTOMATION
8020 - Communication Techniques
8021 - SCADA Control
8022 - Distribution Automation
8023 - Programmable Logic Controllers 

CLUSTER F:DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT TESTING/MAINTENANCE
8024 - Personnel Safety
8025 - Insulation Testing
8026 - Rotating Equipment Maintenance
8027 - Transformer Maintenance
8028 - Switchgear Maintenance
8029 - Line Maintenance
8030 - Maintenance Management

CLUSTER G:DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS-CUSTOMER SERVICE
8031 - Load Characteristics/ Customer Service
8032 - Demand Management
8033 - Metering
8034 - Utility Rate Structure
8035 - The Effects of Deregulation and Competition
8036 - Power Quality

CLUSTER H:THE OPERATORS ROLE IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
8037 - Function of the Operator
8038 - Abnormal Operating Conditions
8039 - Service Interruptions

Power distribution classes for distribution system equipment and system protection including static relaying,coordination of protection devices,Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems,Energy Centre Operations,Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices ,Supervisory Control System (SCADA) and Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention

More Sample Descriptions:

2115 - Introduction to Static Relaying  
The objective of this module is to introduce and present the major features of static relaying, including analog-type solid-state relays and digital microprocessor relays. At this stage in the program, it is assumed that all participants are thoroughly familiar with the functions and characteristics of the different types of relays. This module focuses upon the differences between solid state and electromechanical relays.
After study of this tape and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them in their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

• Advantages and disadvantages of static relays
• Static relay solid state components: diode, transistor
• Transistor circuits
• Thyristors
• Integrated circuits; operational amplifier
• FETs and MOSFETs
• Basic relay circuits
• Signal level detector, timer
• Polarity detector, square wave generator
• Phase comparison circuits
• Amplitude comparison
• Logic circuits
• Switching circuits
• Relay power supplies, voltage regulation
• Examples of solid-state relays
• Overcurrent relays, directional relays
• Differential relays, distance relays
• Digital microprocessor relaying
• Signal sampling, analog-digital conversion
• Reference algorithms
• Function of printed circuit board modules
• Monitoring, remote and local
• Relay programming, remote and local
• Substation control systems

2116 - Coordination of Protection Devices  
The objective of this tape is to present a more detailed study of the subject of "coordination" of protective devices, particularly in the area of distribution systems.
After study of this tape and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

• The coordination problem
• Sensitivity and selectivity
• Inverse time characteristic of protection devices
• Expulsion fuses
• Current limiting fuses - High Rupturing Capacity (HRC)
• Fuse curves
• Minimum melt and damage curves
• Fuse coordination procedure
• Coordination of fuse with overcurrent relays
• Coordination of capacitor bank fuses
• Recloser application
• Recloser characteristics
• Fast and slow recloser curves
• Function of sectionalizers
• Voltage restraint sectionalizers
• Coordination of reclosers, sectionalizers and fuses
• Conductor damage curve
• Industrial consumer protection devices
• Low voltage circuit breakers

2117 - Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems  
The objective of this videotape is to stress the importance of uninterruptible power supplies for protection and control circuits, and to look at different means of achieving this. The provision of both continuous AC and continuous DC power supply is discussed and attention is paid to individual power supplies for electronic equipment. Some time is devoted to studying operation and maintenance of the common storage battery. This area often seems to be neglected, even though it is after all, the heart of uninterruptible power supplies.
After study of this tape and the associated workbook participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts, and apply them in their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:
The need for "reliable" continuous power supplies to operate protection and control relays and circuits.

• Different voltage level requirements
• The lead acid cell; lead antimony; lead calcium
• Connection of cells in series to form a storage battery
• Ampere hour rating
• Battery charge rate, overcharging
• Hydrogen release
• Significance of specific gravity and output voltage per cell
• Equalization procedure
• Sulfation
• Safety precautions against acid
• The nickel cadmium cell
• Supply to the DC bus
• The SCR battery charger
• Control of SCR firing
• DC output filter circuit
• Charger adjustments: float voltage, equalization voltage, programmed equalization, output slope, and current limiter
• The controlled ferroresonant battery charger
• The need for uninterruptible AC power supply
• The DC to AC inverter
• Pulse generation and pulse width modulation
• The off-line UPS system
• The on-line UPS system
• The reverse transfer UPS
• The triport UPS system
• Power supplies for electronic equipment
• The need for clean DC power
• The need to shield connecting leads
• The transformer rectifier circuit
• Features of the filter capacitor
• Regulation of DC voltage supply
• The series pass transistor regulator
• Interference from VHF radios
• The switching transistor voltage regulator

2118 - Energy Centre Operations  
The objective of this module is to review, for the benefit of relay personnel, the responsibilities of the power system operators and the activities that take place in the energy control center. The operation of protection schemes is of vital importance to the correct functioning of the power system. Complete cooperation between power system operators and relay personnel is essential, and communication must be maintained in both directions.
After study of this tape and the associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:

• The overall objectives of the power system operator
• Clearance procedures, i.e. isolation of equipment
• Frequency control: economic load dispatch
• Daily load forecast
• Daily generation schedule, including spinning reserve
• System overload, falling frequency, load shedding
• Inter-ties to neighbouring utilities, power interchange
• Generation unit characteristics, i.e. type of prime mover
• Incremental cost of generation
• Rate of start-up and load change availability
• Frequency control by AGC (automatic generation control)
• Turbine governor droop characteristic
• Generator load angle
• Control of excitation, reactive power
• Transmission line impedance characteristics
• Effect of conductor resistance, i.e. heating
• Shunt capacitance, charging current, Ferranti effect
• Special switching procedure on long lines
• Inductive voltage drop along transmission lines
• Shunt capacitors and shunt reactors
• Power angle across transmission lines
• Effect of transmission line voltage on power transfer
• Power transfer distribution through a complex network
• Power angle limit for stability
• System operator actions to improve system stability
• Effect of equipment outages on system operation
• Planned outages, system operation precautions
• Forced outages; states of "alert" and "emergency"
• System separation, i.e. islanding
• Energy center communications
• Energy center information presentation

Power distribution classes for distribution system equipment and system protection including static relaying,coordination of protection devices,Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems,Energy Centre Operations,Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices ,Supervisory Control System (SCADA) and Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention

2119 - Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices   
The objective of this module is to draw attention to the high voltage hazards that can occur on telecommunication circuits entering substations and power stations, and to review the protection devices that are used to combat this problem.
After study of the videotape and the associated workbook the participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them in their day-to-day activities. They will also be able to answer test related questions on these subjects:

• Communication line interface
• Routing of telephone cables by Telco
• Effect on telephone lines of power system faults
• Longitudinal common mode induction
• GPR - Ground Potential Rise
• Remote ground and local ground
• High voltage hazards to personnel and equipment
• Location of demarcation interface
• Standard telephone line protection
• Air gap arrestors
• Carbon block protectors
• Gas tube protectors
• Solid-state protectors
• Limitations of protectors
• Disadvantage of voltage clamping (i.e. circuit shut down)
• Mutual drainage reactor
• High voltage interface
• Dedicated entrance cable; features
• Grounding of dedicated cable
• High voltage special protection
• Neutralizing transformer
• Neutralizing reactor
• Isolation transformers
• High voltage relay for DC signals
• Safety precautions for personnel
• Optical isolators: teleline isolator
• TUCON fiber optic link
• Fiber optic cable and multiplexer

Power distribution classes for distribution system equipment and system protection including static relaying,coordination of protection devices,Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems,Energy Centre Operations,Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices ,Supervisory Control System (SCADA) and Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention

2120 - Telecommunications Protection II - Installation and Configuration  
The purpose of this videotape is to continue on from SPT 19 the discussion of telecommunications protection. While SPT 19 presented protection devices, this module focuses on specific installation practice and typical configurations.
After study of the videotape and associated workbook, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day activities. They will also be able to answer related questions on these subjects.

• Definition of types of communication service
• Definition of SPO classification; A, B, C
• Level of voltage rise at station
• Protection requirements for different SPO classification and voltage level rise
• HVSP configurations for different circuits
• Location of protection (TELCO, RDL, HVI, NI)
• Selection and limitation of protectors
• Grounding arrangements at RDL, TELCO and HVI
• Grounding of dedicated cable sheath
• Isolating of dedicated cable sheath
• Surge arrester connections
• Centre tapped isolating transformer as MDR
• Location and mounting of HVI cabinet
• Grounding of HVI
• Installation of neutralizing transformer (typical)
• Need for rubber gloves
• Primary winding connections to station and RDL grounds
• Use of spare conductors in dedicated cable
• Protection of unassigned pairs in dedicated cable
• Connection of secondary windings
• Insulation of isolating transformer (typical)
• HVI layout, terminal strips, ground bus
• Remote side wiring
• Station side wiring
• Cable connections
• Connection of protectors and MDRs
• Circuit identification and documentation
• Modular HVI
• Installation pitfalls
• Maintenance and inspection items
• Safety considerations

2121 - Supervisory Control System (SCADA)  
The objective of this videotape is to discuss the application of SCADA systems (EMS, and DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION), and to present the main features of modern installations including equipment layout, communications, operations and maintenance.
After completion of this videotape and associated workbook, the participant will be able to understand the following concepts, and apply them to his day to day work activities. He will also be able to answer related test questions:

• Typical applications of SCADA
• Basic features of SCADA, i.e. remote data collection, transmission, processing, display, remote control
• Polling by RTU address
• RTU reporting by exception; 2 second updates
• Control commands; select - check - operate sequence
• RTU data collection
• Analog points, transducers, analog digital conversion
• RTU inputs; analog, status points, pulse accumulation
• RTU outputs; control of switching, load shedding, generation
• Review of binary numbering system
• Modems, signal transmission
• FSK, PSK, A.M.
• Rate of signal transmission, baud
• Components of 32 bit signal
• Communication line arrangements, i.e., party-line, or separate radial connections
• Master station assembly and peripherals
• Front-end communications controller: functions
• Display computer, display stations, operator input
• Standby (redundant) station, failover
• Applications software, executive software
• CPU priority tasking
• On-line diagnostics
• Operator interface, workstations
• Operator input, display response
• Power system equipment status, tagging
• Alarm system
• Logging, reports, trends, sequence-of-events
• SCADA installations, power supply
• Preventive maintenance activities
• Functional tests, test sets, test points
• Software update, modification
• Maintenance records

2122 - Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention   
The objective of this module is to draw attention to the problem of inadvertent trips and misoperation of protection equipment. Typical case studies are presented, with the conclusions leading to recommended procedures to help reduce inadvertent trips.
After completion of this videotape and the associated workbook, participants will be able to understand the following concepts and apply them in their day-to-day work activities. They will also be able to answer test questions on these subjects:

• Definitions of "Inadvertent Trips" and "Misoperation"
• The main causes of inadvertent trips and misoperation
• Effects of installation errors such as: mistakes in wiring, inaccurate drawings, faulty equipment from the manufacturer, incorrect relay settings
• The necessity for testing new installations
• Typical procedures for commissioning tests
• The effect of protection equipment failure and subsequent misoperation
• The need for routine tests at set periodic intervals
• Precautions required when conducting routine tests
• The need for thorough preparation before commencing routine tests
• Cooperation with the operator, equipment isolation and clearance
• Precautions against interference with live circuits
• Typical procedures for routine testing
• The objective of in-service testing
• The potential for human error and resultant inadvertent trips
• Requirements for active protection during in-service testing
• System limitations on in-service testing
• Preparation and typical procedures for in-service testing
• Responding to trouble calls
• Investigation of protection equipment misoperation
• Incident reports



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